Proponents of signal theory model the negotiation process for international agreements as a three-round signal game: first, randomly determine whether the president is reliable or not. Then the president chooses the contract or executive agreement. Finally, it is the negotiating partner who decides whether to accept or reject the proposed agreement, and the parties pay their fees and receive their benefits. In reality, international cooperation is more complex. In particular, signal theory only implies the commitment of the president willing to negotiate, although many agreements are intended to survive and survive presidential terms. The signal model does not show why negotiators should place great confidence in the promises made by a government in the form of treaties when future administrations can easily denounce the agreement. Britannica.com: An encyclopedia article on executive agreements Notwithstanding these restrictions, this study helps inform the debate on the continuing relevance of the treaty. The results are consistent with the idea that the contract provides the parties with certain benefits that the agreement between Congress and the executive branch does not provide, which leads to agreements of different quality. Despite the diminishing application, the treaty appears to retain an important role as a political instrument. In particular, the optimal choice between international agreements may require a presidential administration, the strength of the obligation to carefully examine the private information made available to the public, the domestic costs of the public and the ease with which an agreement can be denounced.
Contracts and agreements between Congress and the executive reflect divergent trade-offs between these characteristics, and the abandonment of the treaty can therefore have a negative impact on the executive`s ability to adapt an agreement to a particular context. As a result, policy recommendations calling for the treaty to be abandoned appear premature and may have unintended consequences.